WAEC Syllabus for Chemistry 2022/2023 and Textbooks pdf Download

The WAEC Chemistry syllabus 2021 is a piece of material that contains the list of all the topics that the 2021 WAEC chemistry questions will be set from.

This piece of material is given to WAEC candidates as a WAEC chemistry area of concentration.

Now, the content of this WAEC syllabus for chemistry covers all your scheme of work from SS1 to SS3 and it will help to enlighten candidates of their exam focus.

Additionally, you will also see the WAEC recommended textbooks for chemistry that candidates should use for a comprehensive study.

WAEC Chemistry Topics to Read and area of concentration

With the chemistry syllabus 2021, WAEC candidates will know the topics to read for the 2021 WAEC chemistry exam.

The detailed WAEC chemistry syllabus for 2021 starts here. Below are the WAEC Chemistry topics to read and area of concentration for candidates to follow.

WAEC Syllabus for Chemistry 2021 Download in pdf . Recommended Textbook, Area of concentration & topics that chemistry Questions are set from.

Introduction To Chemistry

  • Definition of Chemistry
  • Chemistry of Matter
  • Nature of matter
  • Scientific measurements and quantities
  • The scientific method
  • The scientific method follows the following sequence:
  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Theory
  • Law

Chemistry and Study of Matter

  • Kinetic theory of matter.
  • State of matter.
  • Diffusion
  • Postulates of the kinetic theory.
  • Changes of state of matter.
  • Gases
  • Solids
  • Liquids
  • Elements
  • Compounds
  • Mixtures
  • Characteristics and nature of gases;
  • Shapes and compressibility
  • Vapour.
  • density
  • Particles,

Atomic Structure

  • The Atoms, molecules and ions
  • Atomic Theory
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic mass
  • Mass number
  • Proton number
  • Atomic number
  • Isotopes
  • Orbitals
  • Atomic symbols
  • Sub-atomic particles
  • Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Bohr’s model of atom.
  • Relative atomic mass
  • Molecular mass
  • Characteristics and
  • Electron Configuration

Physical and Chemical Changes

  • Physical changes
  • Chemical changes
  • Examples of chemical and physical change
  • Melting of solids
  • Boiling of liquids
  • Evaporation of liquids
  • Dissolution of solutes
  • Brownian motion and diffusion.

Theories and Principles:

  • Hund’s Rule
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • Aufbau Principle.

Seperation: Separation techniques and criteria for purity.

  • Seperation methods:
  • Chromatography
  • Precipitation
  • Crystallization
  • Magnetization
  • Sublimation
  • Distillation.
  • Boiling point
  • Melting point
  • Variable oxidation states
  • physical states

The Periodic Table

  • Periodicity.
  • Groups and Periods
  • The periodic law.

Periodic properties;

  • Ionic size
  • Electronegativity
  • Ionization energy
  • electron affinity
  • Atomic radius
  • Number of valence electrons (Valency)

Chemical Bonding

  • Formation of bonds
  • Complex formation
  • Metallic Bonding
  • ionic bonding
  • Covalent bonding
  • Diatomic bonding
  • Interatomic bonding
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Van der Waals forces
  • Inter molecular bonding
  • Formation of coloured compounds;

Section Two of the WAEC Chemistry Syllabus for 2021

Shapes of compunds:

  • Linear
  • Planar
  • Tetrahedral
  • Polar and non-polar compounds.


  • Chemical symbols
  • IUPAC names

Chemical formula

  • Empirical formula
  • Structural formula
  • Molecular formula

Chemical Reactions:

  • Chemical equations, Chemical compounds and Chemical combination.
  • Amount of substance, chemical symbols, and Chemical formulae.
  • Acids-Base reactions, Acids and metals.
  • Combustion reactions
  • Decomposition reaction
  • Redox reactions.
  • Ionic reactions
  • Displacement reaction.
  • Synthesis
  • Balancing of equations.

Experiments and Calculations:

  • Mass and volume relationships
  • Percentage composition.
  • Preparation of solutions
  • Mole and Mole ratios
  • Avogadro’s constant  (6.02 x 1023)
  • Molar quantities
  • Dilute solution and concentrated solution.
  • Concentration terms
  • Amount of substance
  • Yield of product
  • Primary and secondary standard.
  • Standard solutions.
  • Calculation of Mass
  • Volume and percentage
  • Testing fo Basic, acidic and neutral solutions.
  • Molar concentration.
  • Dilution factor

Laws: Law of

  1. Conservation of mass.
  2. Constant composition.
  3. Multiple proportions.

Gases and Gas laws:

  1. Charles’ law
  2. Boyle’ss law
  3. Dalton’s law of partial pressure;
  4. Graham’s law of diffusion,
  5. Avogadro’s law.
  6. Ideal gas equation
  7. Gay Lussacs law.
  8. kinetic model.
  9. Kinetic molecular theory.
  10. Gas volumes, pressure, temperature.
  11. Mathematical expression, relations and calculation of the gas laws
  12. Real gases and ideal situation.
  13. Preparation and purification of gases.
  14. Physical properties of the gases.
  15. Chemical properties of the gases
  16. Arrangement of gaseous particles, compressibility, viscosity, shape, density, and volume.
  17. Vapour
  18. Pressure of gases
  19. Boiling and evaporation.
  20. Temperature of gases
  21. Volume of gases


  • Energy Changes
  • Enthalpy
  • Enthropy
  • Ionic
  • Metallic
  • Covalent
  • Chemical processes.
  • Exothermic process
  • Endothermic processes.
  • Total energy of a system.
  • Kinetic energy
  • Potential energy
  • Electrical energy
  • Heat energy.
  • Sound energy.
  • Combustion
  • Dissolution
  • Neutralization.

Section Three of WAEC 2021 Syllabus for Chemistry


  • Particles ions
  • Molecules and atoms
  • Properties of solids
  • Interatomic and intermolecular bonding in the solids.
  • Identification of the types of chemical bonds in solid.
  • Melting points of solid.
  • Indicator of purity of solids.

Acids, Bases And Salts.

  • Explanation of acids and bases.
  • Physical properties of acids and bases.
  • Chemical properties of acids and bases.
  • Classification of acids and bases.
  • Concept of the pH scale
  • Acid-base indicators.
  • Acid-base electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
  • Strength of acids and bases.
  • Reaction of Acid and Base
  • Laboratory and industrial preparation of acid and base.
  • Hydrolysis of salt.
  • Titration


  • Explanation of salts.
  • Types of salts.
  • Laboratory and industrial preparation of salts.
  • Crystallization of Salt
  • Behaviour of salts


  • Definition and expalnation of solubility.
  • Saturated and unsaturated solutions.
  • The equilibrium system.
  • Solubility curves
  • Effect of temperature on solubility of a substance.
  • Solubility and crystallization.
  • Calculations on solubility.
  • Solubility rules.

Chemical Kinetics And Equilibrium System

  • The rate of chemical reactions:
  • Factors affecting rates of chemical reaction
  • Theories of reaction rates.
  • Chemical equilibrium.
  • Pressure of reactants
  • Collision of particles
  • Transition state theories
  • Activation energy.
  • Energy profile
  • Activation energy
  • Enthalpy and Entropy change.
  • Reversible and irreversible reactions.

Redox Reactions:

  • Oxidation and reduction reaction.
  • Oxidizing agents and reactions
  • Reducing agents and reactions
  • Half-life equation
  • Le Chatelier’s principle.
  • Redox equations
  • Loss and gain of electrons.
  • Oxidation state
  • The electrochemical cells and series.
  • Standard electrode potential.
  • Addition and removal of oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Loss and gain of electrons.
  • Balancing of redox equations


  • Explanation of electrolysis
  • Faraday Laws of electrolysis.
  • Principles of electrolysis
  • Electrolytic cells and application of electrochemical cells.
  • Practical application of electrolysis
  • Discharge of species.
  • Primary and secondary cells
  • Daniell cell
  • Calculations on Electrolysis.
  • Electroplating

SS3 Scheme of Work and Area of Concentration for Chemistry

Carbon and its Compounds

  • Natural occurrence of Carbon
  • Allotropes of Carbon

Organic Chemistry:

  • Homologeous series
  • Functional group
  • Organic compounds.
  • Petroleum.
  • Fractional distillation
  • Cracking
  • Isomerism
  • Petrochemicals
  • Cctane number
  • Crystallization
  • Chromatography.
  • Empirical formulae of organic compounds
  • Structural formulae of organic compounds
  • Molecular formulae of organic compounds
  • Geometric/stereo isomerism.
  • Esterification
  • Nomenclature and structure.
  • Laboratory preparation of organic compounds.
  • Benzene
  • Polymerization.
  • Halogenation.
  • Hydrogenation
  • Hydration.
  • Primary, secondary and tertiary alkanols.
  • Laboratory test for ethanol.

Industrial And The Environmental Chemistry

  • Chemical industries
  • Natural resources
  • Extraction and purification
  • Fine and heavy chemicals.
  • Industrial pollution.
  • Biotechnology.

Biochemistry And Synthetic Polymers

  • Proteins and uses of protein
  • Depletion of the ozone layer
  • Properties and sources of protein
  • Fermentation
  • Amino acids
  • Greenhouse effect.
  • Biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.
  • Food processing process
  • Polymers
  • Hydrolysis of proteins;

Fats and oils:

  • Formation of fat and oil
  • Sources and properties of fat and oil
  • Uses of fats and oils in industrial production
  • Test for the presence of fats and oil.
  • Saponification (Preparation of soap) from fats/oils.


  • Monosaccharides;
  • Disaccharides
  • Polysaccharides.
  • Classes of carbohydrates.
  • Solubility of sugars.
  • Chemical properties of carbohydrates.
  • Test for sugar.
  • Starch and glucose units.


  • Monomers
  • Polymers
  • polymerization.
  • comonomers.
  • Thermoplastics
  • Thermosets.
  • Plastics and resins
  • properties of plastics.
  • Biogradable and non- biogradable.
  • Chemical test on plastics

WAEC 2021 Recommended Textbooks for Chemistry

Below are the WAEC chemistry recommended textbooks for 2021 WAEC candidates. These are the best textbooks to use when studying chemistry.

There are the most comprehensive chemistry textbooks that will breakdown everything in detail and explain to your understanding.

  • New School Chemistry by Ababio
  • Senior Secondary Chemistry, Books 2 & 3 by Bajah, Teibo, and Co.
  • Understanding Chemistry by Ojokuku (for Schools and Colleges)
  • 2nd Edition: Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools by Odesina
  • Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry by Uche, Iwuagwu, and Adenuga.

Hope you found this WAEC Chemistry syllabus 2021 update very helpful and useful? Make sure to use this material as your WAEC chemistry area of concentration.

Focus on the topics listed above and do well to cover them extensively using the textbooks listed above, before the exam.

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