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Saturday 7th August, 2021
Paper III & II: Objective & Essay – Government
2021 NECO GOVERNMENT (ESSAY) ANSWERS:
2021 NECO GOVERNMENT (OBJECTIVE) ANSWERS:
1.(a) What is authority?
(b) Explain five types of authority.
Authority can be defined as the legal right to make rules or orders and command others who see is as a duty to obey.
(i) Migration helps to reduce the pressure on social amenities within one geographical region.
(ii) It helps to promote cultural integrity.
(iii) It aids the supply of labour.
(iv) It ensures the flow of capital.
(i) Migration often breeds social vices.
(ii) It brings decline in production.
(iii) Migration often leads to unemployment.
(iv) Migration leads to congestion in transportation and housing.
3.Elucidate six conditions that can limit the sovereignty of a state.
NO 3 )
1. lack of ability to sustain sovereign enforcers. This includes stuff like, police, military, judiciary, diplomats, etc. To put it simply, no government can function without them, period.
2. Lack of sufficient military force or diplomatic leverage to enforce government sovereignty.
3. Over-dependence on foreign powers to enforce their sovereignty, or supplies for a major part of its economy or national defense.
4. Uncontrolled corruption, which would cause the government officers to abuse its power to government’s detriment. Notice that this is different from directed/sanctioned bribery, which simply redirects the real power to someone else within the government/nation.
5. Lack of public trust, either due to cultural, economic recession, corruption, poverty, etc, one that lead to majority of citizens to revolt.
6. Invasion and conquest by a foreign nation
(i)Constitution:Constitution is the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it. Constitution of most states are supreme. It defines the powers exercised by the various levels of government. It therefore limits the power of the government.
(ii)The electorate: Electorate may refer to the people who are eligible to vote in an election. It is the body of persons entitled to vote in an election. They posses ultimate power in a state. Therefore , any government should be responsible to the people whose collective affairs it directs and control
(iii)Public opinion: Public opinion is the collective opinion on a specific topic or voting intention relevant to a society. In democracies , governments are open and accommodating. They take into consideration , the opinion of the people when formulating policies . This is limitation to the exercise of their power.
(iv)The military: Military is the armed forces responsible for securing and defending a country. The military through forceful removal of Democratic government is a limitation to the sovereignty of the state. The tradition mostly exhibited by the military is by suspending the constitution of the state after taking over the power.
(v)Custom and Traditions:Custom is a usage or practice common to many or a particular place or group of people. Tradition is the transmission of customs or beliefs from generation to generation. Customs and tradition of the people are mostly considered by the state before or when making policies and laws.
(vi)Religion and culture: Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations. Religion and culture play a very important role in the political affairs of a nation. When making of policies and law in the state,religion and culture of the people are mostly considered by the government.
6. Describe six structures of military rule in Nigeria.
(i) The Armed Forces Ruling Council: This
was the supreme body which performed
legislative functions. This was composed of the service chiefs, top ranking military officers, Inspector- General of Police, Attorney- General, with the president as chairman.
(ii) The council of ministers: Itwas composed of the president, vice-president and the ministers some of whomaremilitary officers, while others were civilians. The council performed executive functions with the president as chairman.
(iii) The National Council of States: It is composedof the Head of state/President, Chief of General Staff, Minister of defence, service chiefs ofthe army, the Navy and the Air force, the Inspector General of Police, Attomey-General and all Military Governors. Functions: The council was charged with cordination and harmonization of the work of the various state governments and the federal military government. Former Heads of States were also members.
(iv) The judiciary: lt remained the same as inthe civilian era with Chief Justice as the head. Inclusive are various tribunals which had judges and military officers as members.
(v) The civil service: The secretary to the military government is head of public services. Director-Generals replaced the permanent secretaries by the 1988 civil service reforms.
7.(a) What is political party?
(b) Discuss five functions of political parties.
A political party is defined as an organised group of citizens, who act together as a political unit, having distinctive aims and objectives involving political questions in the states and acting together and seeking to obtain control of government.
(i)Unity: Political parties unite the people on major issues affecting the state.
(ii)Accountability: They enable the government to become accountable to the electorate through constructive criticism of the government in power.
(iii)Provision of organization: They try to provide an organisation for running the government.
(iv)Control of the government: Political parties exist to contest elections and control the government.
(v)Machinery for recruitment: Political parties provide a machinery for recruiting political leaders.
9. Highlight six advantages of interactions among nations of the world.
1. To promote peace and security worldwide.
2. To draw Nations closer through sports, musicals, etc.
3. Interactions among nations bring about economic advancement especially in the areas of technology.
4. It promotes trade among themselves.
5. To prevent misunderstandings and future conflicts between nations.
6. To create new culture that can lead the world to a more platonic place that all people can live together without much culture differences.
10,Explain six consequences of the Nigerian civil war.
(i)Territorial integrity: The Territorial integrity and unity of Nigeria was maintained.
(ii)Secession: The civil war reduced the possibility of a secession by any ethnic groups or states.
(iii)Technology: The civil war enabled Nigerians to look inwards technologically.
(i)Cost:The war cost the nation a lot of money. Property investments and an unestimated numbers of live were lost.
(ii)Displacement of families: Families were displaced and innocent citizens suffered untold hardship.
(iii)Currency policy:The currency policy of the Federal Government made some sections of the country poorer.
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